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Social Science Quarterly 90: 292–308. About two-thirds of married adults (66%) who lived with their spouse before they were married (and who were not yet engaged when they moved in together) say they saw cohabitation as a step toward marriage. As individuals experienced divorce either first hand or within their social networks, the stigma attached to divorce diminished. Cohabitors are the most likely to be working (62%). 1615 L St. NW, Suite 800Washington, DC 20036USA Marital duration is inversely associated with divorce and remarriages tend to be of shorter duration than first marriages. A., Borell, K., & Karlsson, S. G. (, Dupre, M. E., Beck, A. N., & Meadows, S. O. Same-sex couples aren’t the optimum environment in which to raise children. But the older adult cohabitation rate also has risen. Research on child marriage in Southeast Asia is scarce. Child marriage continues to be highly prevalent in Africa, where almost 40% of girls are married before age 18 [].Research has consistently documented the adverse economic, social, demographic and reproductive health consequences of child marriage for child brides, their families and their communities [1,2,3,4,5,6,7].Marriage can lead to unique changes in the life of an adolescent girl … Cohabitation operates as an alternative to marriage for older adults and is increasingly replacing remarriage following divorce or widowhood. Gay relationships are immoral. NA = not applicable. This paradox merits further conceptual and empirical attention. Marital strain exacerbates the decline in self-rated health that typically occurs over time, and this effect is larger at older ages (Umberson, Williams, Powers, Liu, & Needham, 2006). The economies of scale traditionally confined to marriage also can be achieved through cohabitation and without the legal obligations marriage involves. Underscoring the growing diversity of marital statuses in later life, these patterns signal that traditional lifelong marriage that eventuates in spousal loss is decreasingly characteristic of the older adult family life course. In 2004, individuals aged 50 and older living in ten European countries were typically in partnered relationships. They’ve examined relationships around the world to learn what makes them work or not. Indeed, the gray divorce rate is 2.5 times higher for those in a remarriage than a first marriage (Brown & Lin, 2012). Among Whites, cohabitation is associated with higher mortality than marriage but this differential diminishes with age (Liu & Reczek, 2012), perhaps reflecting the unique role of cohabitation as an alternative to marriage in later life. Cohabiters who are not engaged but want to get married someday are more likely to cite their partner not being ready (26%), rather than themselves (14%), as a major reason they’re not engaged or married. Childlessness is on the rise for older adults internationally, and the proportions divorced are also expected to increase in the coming years, reflecting family patterns established earlier in the life course and raising new questions about the availability of family support and caregiving in later life (Kinsella & Phillips, 2005). 2 Most Americans (69%) say cohabitation is acceptable even if a couple doesn’t plan to get married. Despite similar education levels, poverty is four times higher among unmarried than married boomers, and disability is twice as high (Lin & Brown, 2012). Dramatic family changes are occurring during the second half of life. Similarly, many couples choose cohabitation over remarriage at the urging of their adult children (BildtgÃ¥rd & Öberg, 2017). Other factors, such as prior marital transitions, their timing, the duration of time spent in particular marital statuses, and the sequencing of these transitions combine to shape health and well-being (Cooney & Dunne 2001; Hughes & Waite, 2009; Reczek, Pudrovska, Carr, Thomeer, & Umberson, 2016; Zhang et al., 2016). Their research is an overview of the topic of marriage and happiness. This process can create conflict and disagreement, but it is also an opportunity for couples to carve out alternative relationship scripts that do not hew to traditional marital expectations (Vespa, 2013). When U.S. adults are asked about the impact that living together first might have on the success of a couple’s marriage, roughly half (48%) say that, compared with couples who don’t live together before marriage, couples who do live together first have a better chance of having a successful marriage. New relationship paradigms offer attractive alternatives to marriage and even cohabitation. This research was supported in part by the Center for Family and Demographic Research, Bowling Green State University, which has core funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (P2CHD050959). Later life divorce is also tied to decreased contact with adult children, especially for fathers (Kalmijn, 2013). Looking at present relationships, 53% of adults ages 18 and older are currently married, down from 58% in 1995, according to data from the Current Population Survey. But empirical research reveals they are not associated with a couple’s risk of gray divorce. Unlike their younger counterparts, they do not have decades remaining in the labor force to make up for the financial losses associated with divorce. On the other hand, individuals who are vulnerable due to financial hardship or poor health could be devastated by a gray divorce. No gender differences are evident on this question among married adults. Marriage is an institution between one man and one woman. U.S. family life is characterized by marked demographic change. One framework that attempts this is the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model of Marriage (i.e., the VSA model; Karney & Bradbury, 1995). Third, remarriage rates have declined 60% in recent decades and have stalled among older adults (Brown & Lin, 2013; Sweeney, 2010). Older adults in LAT relationships report less happiness than do cohabitors and married individuals, but also less relationship strain, which aligns with the notion that LAT couples can establish the relationship expectations and norms that work for them (Lewin, 2016). The gap between the married and never-married has shrunk for men and the negative health outcomes associated with marital disruption are more severe, particularly among women (Liu & Umberson, 2008). To ensure researchers can capture the richness of the family life course experiences of older adults, major national data collections on older adults may benefit from expanding beyond the narrow focus on marital status to include non-coresidential relationships such as dating and LAT. People who live apart together (LATs): New family form or just a stage? While marriage is often seen as an essential step in a successful life, the Pew Research Center reports that only about half of Americans over age 18 … This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (. Marriage is the process by which two people make their relationship public, official, and permanent. Connidis, I. Couples often pursue LAT relationships rather than cohabit or marry because they have resident children (de Jong Gierveld & Merz, 2013). In turn, repartnering following divorce further weakens men’s relationships to their children (Kalmijn, 2013; Noël-Miller, 2013). Reczek, C., Pudrovska, T., Carr, D., Thomeer, M. B., & Umberson, D. (, Schoen, R., Astone, N. M., Kim, Y. J., Rothert, K., & Standish, N. J. Properly understood, “families” are formed only by ties of blood, marriage, or adoption, and “marriage” is a union of one man and one woman. Rather, the most common union outcome for older cohabitors is dissolution resulting from the death of the partner (Brown et al., 2012). Yet, comparative research on partnerships and unions in later life is slim. Among those who are age-eligible for Social Security, 27% of gray divorced women are in poverty compared with just 13% of widowed women. Gerontologists and family scholars are only beginning to investigate the patterns and consequences of these new frontiers in later life couple relationships. 2. The centrality of marriage has receded in modern society and living alone or with an unmarried partner are now viable alternatives (Cherlin, 2004). For example, 80% of cohabiting women cite love as a major factor, compared with 63% of cohabiting men. Younger adults are more likely than their older counterparts to find it acceptable for an unmarried couple to live together. An incomplete institution in which the norms and expectations for partners’ roles lack clear definition, cohabitation requires couples to actively construct their relationship dynamics (cf., Nock, 1995). A third factor is women’s employment. Marital biographies are now diverse, so collecting more detailed marital and cohabitation histories for same-sex and different-sex relationships is warranted to ensure researchers can identify the components of the marital biography that are most closely tied to well-being in later life (Umberson, Thomeer, Kroeger, Lodge, & Xu, 2015). At … Another 16% say it’s acceptable, but only if the couple plans to marry, and 14% say it’s never acceptable for an unmarried couple to live together. It is also essential to address how these partnership dynamics impinge on other family ties, namely between parents and their children. Give the best gift you’ll ever give, which is what your spouse really wants, and you want to give . (, Lin, I. F., Brown, S. L., & Hammersmith, A. M. (. More than three decades ago, scholars identified key social and demographic trends foretelling a rise in later life divorce (Berardo, 1982; Uhlenberg & Myers, 1981). (, Kohli, M., Kunemund, H., & Ludicke, J. (, Umberson, D., Thomeer, M. B., Kroeger, R. A., Lodge, A. C., & Xu, M. (, Umberson, D., Williams, K., Powers, D. A., Liu, H., & Needham, B. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) provides some basic insights. Cohort replacement has contributed to a rise in favorable attitudes towards cohabitation among older adults. For men, the share is about 13% regardless of dissolution type. In short, there are arrays of relationship options for older adults that merit consideration in future research. Interracial couples are more likely to experience gray divorce than same race couples. Please check for further notifications by email. Yet, many couples divorce within a few years of remarrying. Unmarried boomers are disadvantaged compared with married boomers. In Sweden, for example, about 10% of men and 6% of women were cohabiting in 2004 (Kohli et al., 2005). Pre-wedding jitters are pretty common. The rising popularity of older adult cohabitation was first documented more than two decades ago (Chevan, 1996; Hatch, 1995). A healthy marriage is associated with emotional, physical, and financial benefits for children and families. An important task for future research is to evaluate whether the outcomes associated with gray divorce are similar to widowhood as well as whether repartnering reduces the negative effects of disruption. By contrast, Republicans are about evenly split: 50% favor and 49% oppose this. Likewise, the shares of never-married and cohabiting older adults have risen over the past 25 years. Remarkably little is known about the basic levels and patterns of emergent relationship types, such as LAT, let alone whether and how these relationships affect the health and well-being of older adults. IN the psychological web that is marriage, there is. When it comes to their sex lives, however, similar shares of married and cohabiting adults (about a third) say they are very satisfied. Some have shunned marriage altogether whereas others are calling it quits later in life. Only 1% of older men and just 0.4% of older women were cohabiting, levels that are remarkably lower than in the United States. For older women, the percentage married has stagnated, hovering at 52.6% in 1990 and 52.7% in 2015. The varied marital biographies of today’s older adults raise a host of questions about the diverse trajectories of the family life course after age 50. The transition to marriage among older cohabiting couples, while unusual, appears to follow a gendered pattern of exchange in which men are most likely to marry when they are in poor health and have considerable wealth whereas women’s marriage entry is highest when they have little wealth and excellent health (Vespa, 2013). First, there has been a slight increase in people who never marry, especially for men (Lin & Brown, 2012). As of 2015, more than one in three boomers (37%) was unmarried (authors’ calculation using the 2015 American Community Survey). Older adults are at the forefront of family change as a declining share experiences lifelong marriage and rates of cohabitation and divorce in later life continue to rise. The child marriage burden remains high among female adolescents in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development. From a life course perspective, it is plausible that key turning points such as an empty nest, retirement, or failing health could prompt couples to reflect on their marriage and decide to get divorced. Cohabitors cannot count on their partner like married spouses do (Noël-Miller, 2011). … These findings challenge the marital resources model which stipulates that marriage provides spouses with psychological, economic, and social benefits that should enhance well-being (Zhang et al., 2016) and longevity (Dupre et al., 2009). Among both married and cohabiting adults, love and companionship top the list of reasons why they decided to get married or to move in with their partner. Widowhood fell slightly among men from 7.5% in 1990 to 5.7% in 2015. In poorer quality marriages, the health benefits are often negligible or even negative compared to the alternative of getting divorced (Zhang et al., 2016). Whereas cohabitation among young adults tends to operate as a prelude to marriage or an alternative to singlehood, culminating in either marriage or separation within a year or two of its inception, cohabitation among older adults functions as a long-term alternative to marriage (King & Scott, 2005). 4 (See a related article, Stress and the Autism Parent). In a series of research studies, Dr. Gottman developed … Student research Student Work 2015 The Impact of Arranged Marital Customs on Women's Autonomy in Rural India Tazree Kadam ... arranged!marriage.Inadramatic,!but!not!whollyuncommon,!turn!of!events,!thetrajectory!of! In the 1970’s, systematic observation of couples started in the Gottman lab. For a more in-depth review of the three phases of Gottman’s research with marriage and couples, continue reading. In other words, men exchange economic security for women’s caregiving and vitality. As depicted in Figure 1, the number of cohabitors aged 50 years and older has more than quadrupled since 2000, rising from roughly 951,000 to over 4 million in 2016. There is little work on the consequences of gray divorce (Carr & Pudrovska, 2012) but it seems likely that the range of outcomes for older adults is more varied than for younger adults. Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University. Langbein L, Yost MA (2009) Same-sex marriage and negative externalities. Dr. Gottman showed that there was tremendous regularity in a couple over time. Badgett M (2004) Will providing marriage rights to same-sex couples undermine heterosexual marriage? But family pathways are not restricted to marriage or even to coresidential relationships. These differentials emerge despite evidence that same-sex couples monitor and encourage healthy behaviors for their partners (Reczek, 2012). (, Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., & Muraco, A. Couples can live together in a close, intimate partnership and pool their resources to the extent that it works for them. Scott Bidstrup in his essay “Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives” summarizes the most common claims against marriage, such as: 1. Recent Marriage Articles. Thus, we can expect later life repartnering to climb in the coming years. Rather, the same factors that are associated with divorce earlier in the adult life course are most salient for gray divorce, too. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, the only available information on older adult marital status distributions in other countries is now somewhat dated. In 2010, more than one-quarter of individuals who divorced were over age 50, compared to just 1 in 10 in 1990 (Brown & Lin, 2012). The percentages currently divorced among older European adults, which stood at 6% and 7% for men and women, respectively, are also considerably lower than in the United States. Timing also matters: the detrimental health outcomes associated with divorce attenuate whereas the negative effects of widowhood intensify with age for women (Liu, 2012). Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. When an older adult experiences a health decline does the partner step in to help or is it the adult child who serves as the caregiver? And, here again, cross-national information on non-coresidential unions, such as dating and LAT relationships, appears to be lacking. Bulcroft and Bulcroft’s (1991) conclusion more than a quarter century ago that explanations for dating in young adulthood do not readily apply to older adult dating remains true and extends to other relationship types such as cohabitation. Among men, 5% were never-married in 1990 versus 9.1% in 2015. First, Uhlenberg and Myers (1981) noted that widespread divorce created new norms about the acceptability of calling it quits. Here are seven key findings from the report: 1 A larger share of adults have cohabited than have been married. Many of the boomers who first divorced as young adults got remarried and are divorcing yet again (Brown & Lin, 2012). Percentage Distributions of Demographic, Economic, and Health Characteristics of Previously Married Adults Aged 50 and Older, by Union Status, 2015. If partners and children are less willing to be caregivers, then the burden increasingly falls on institutions and society to manage the care of frail elders which could have significant public policy implications. Consistent with the cumulative disadvantage perspective, dissolutions appear to have additive negative effects on health, as individuals who experience two divorces fare worse, on average, than those who only divorce once (Dupre, Beck, & Meadows, 2009; Zhang, 2006). For example, a recent study by Karraker and Latham (2015) suggests that healthy midlife married couples are at risk of gray divorce with the onset of wife’s heart problems, but not when the husband’s health declines. Indeed, cohabitation in later life tends to be quite stable, with an average duration of nearly ten years (Brown, Bulanda, & Lee, 2012; Brown & Kawamura, 2010). We present prevalence estimates of, and differences in, reported reasons for recent breakdown of marriages and … (2016) and reflect the 2010 repartnership status of individuals who had experienced divorce or widowhood at age 50 years or older. Advice suggested that psychologists should not study couples, because of the unreliability in studying one person might be squared by studying two people. Gray divorce results in two individuals eligible to repartner and they are much more likely to form a new union than those who experience dissolution through spousal death. In fact, some of the most dramatic shifts in family life are occurring among adults aged 50 years and older (Cooney & Dunne, 2001). Brown, S. L., Lin, I. F., Hammersmith, A. M., & Wright, M. R.(2016). Marital trajectories and mortality among US adults, Aging and sexual orientation: A 25-year review of the literature, Disparities in health and disability among older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships. Amid these changes, most Americans find it acceptable for unmarried couples to live together, even for those who don’t plan to get married, according to a new Pew Research Center study. Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults, Aging cohabiting couples and family policy: Different-sex and same-sex couples, Online dating in middle and later life: Gendered expectations and experiences, A comparison of marriages and cohabiting relationships, Partner caregiving in older cohabiting couples, Repartnering following divorce: Implications for older fathers’ relations with their adult children, The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships, Marital histories and heavy alcohol use among older adults, Women’s employment, marital happiness, and divorce, Led by Baby Boomers, divorce rates climb for America’s 50+ population, Number of U.S. adults cohabiting with a partner continues to rise, especially among those 50 and older, Remarriage and stepfamilies: Strategic sites for family scholarship in the 21st century, Older widows’ attitudes towards men and remarriage, Gender, marriage, and health for same-sex and different-sex couples: The future keeps arriving, Challenges and opportunities for research on same-sex relationships, You make me sick: Marital quality and health over the life course, Living apart together relationships (LAT): Severing intimacy from obligation, Relationship transitions among older cohabitors: The role of health, wealth, and family ties, Union formation in later life: Economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults, Dating for older women: Experiences and meanings of dating in later life, Marital status, marital transitions, and health: A gendered life course perspective, Psychological well-being among older adults: The role of partnership status, Marital history and the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife, Gender, the marital life course, and cardiovascular disease in late midlife, Marital biography and health in middle and late life, Couple relationships in the middle and later years: Their nature, complexity, and role in health and illness. Moreover, the negative health effects of divorce are not necessarily immediately apparent and can emerge years later (Hughes & Waite, 2009), reinforcing the stress model perspective that stipulates marital dissolution is a stressful life event that often involves enduring, chronic strains which take a toll on health (Zhang et al., 2016). In the past decade alone, the number of individuals aged 50 years and older who were cohabiting surged 85% from 2.3 to 4 million (Stepler, 2017b). Three-in-ten Millennials live with a spouse and child, compared with 40% of Gen Xers at a comparable age. Married adults are more likely than those who are living with a partner to say things are going very well in their relationship (58% vs. 41%). Discover librarian-selected research resources on Marriage from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more. Marital dysfunction and divorce can negatively impact families and jeopardize psychological and physical health. Our review indicates that a growing segment of older adults may be at risk for poorer health outcomes and at the same time have fewer informal sources of support, necessitating additional institutional mechanisms for ensuring the health and well-being of today’s older population. The dramatic increase in wives’ labor force participation when these older people were at their prime changed the marital bargain by making wives less dependent on their husbands (Schoen, Astone, Kim, Rothert, & Standish, 2002). Recent decades have witnessed a retreat from marriage, sustained high levels of divorce, and a rapid acceleration in unmarried cohabitation (Cherlin, 2010; Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014). Today’s baby boomers (born 1946–1964), for example, were the generation that as young adults popularized premarital cohabitation and experienced the divorce revolution. Number of cohabiting individuals aged 50 years and older, 2000–2016. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. (, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. But new research The obstacles associated with stepfamily formation are so formidable that it can take five to seven years for families to reach equilibrium. A recentstudyof 25,000 people in England found that among people having a heart attack, those who were married were 14% more likely to survive and they were able to leave the hospital two days sooner than single people having a heart attack. Still, a narrow majority sees societal benefits in marriage. 6. The retreat from marriage among older adults raises important questions about the ramifications of family change for health and well-being as well as access to caregivers given that spouses historically have been the primary source of care. Aging is a global phenomenon with far-reaching ramifications for societies. happiness and which are illusory. Marital benefits are contingent on marital quality with the greatest gains accruing to those with the happiest marriages. “Marriage doesn’t make you happy,” says Harvard psychology professor and happiness expert Daniel Gilbert. They perceived this was due to adolescents eloping together, and reinforced by access to internet through smartphones. Marriages are for procreation and ensuring the continuation of the species. As marriage rates have declined, the share of U.S. adults who have ever lived with an unmarried partner has risen. . Second, the increase in remarriage that accompanied the divorce revolution also portended a rise in subsequent divorce as remarriages are at higher risk of divorce than first marriages. The scope of the gray divorce revolution will intensify in the coming years with the aging of the population. Psychologist Raluca Petrican at the Rotman Research Institute in Toronto and her colleagues at the University of Toronto recruited 14 women with an … U.S. family life is characterized by marked demographic change. Only a minority of older cohabiting couples wed or break up. About a quarter (24%) say their partner not being ready financially is a minor reason, and 29% say the same about their own finances. Probably LAT and dating partners are even less likely to provide care than cohabiting partners, but this question remains unexplored. The goal of this article is to review recent scholarship on marriage, cohabitation, and divorce among older adults and identify directions for future research. To complete the subscription process, please click the link in the email we just sent you. That advice was wrong. (+1) 202-857-8562 | Fax Nonetheless, research on later life union formation shows that wealthier individuals are not more likely to remarry than to cohabit (Vespa, 2012). Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. In particular, the ways in which changes in spousal health may shape one’s own outcomes are poorly understood (Cooney & Dunne, 2001; Zhang et al., 2016). Same-sex male cohabitors are largely similar to different-sex married men in terms of physical health but experience more psychological distress. Today’s older adults have complex marital biographies, reflecting their varied experiences of cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage. LAT relationships, which can be conceptualized as long-term dating relationships that are unlikely to eventuate in either cohabitation or marriage, offer unprecedented flexibility and autonomy by allowing couples to define their obligations and responsibilities to one another within a framework of a high commitment relationship (Benson & Coleman, 2016; Connidis et al., 2017; Duncan & Phillips, 2011; Upton-Davis, 2012). Today’s baby boomers (born 1946–1964), for example, were the generation th… Here, we reviewed recent research that focuses on marriage, cohabitation, and divorce in later life. One reason for the rise of cohabitation in later life is because fewer older adults are married, meaning a larger share is eligible to cohabit. In 2015, figures stood at 14.3% for men and 18.1% for women. Future research should pay greater attention not only to the diverse family demographic trends marking older adulthood but also how these patterns align with cross-national economic and social policies, which may provide incentives to form (or dissolve) various types of unions. Poor health could impede their ability to work, compounding financial difficulties. Recent decades have witnessed a retreat from marriage, sustained high levels of divorce, and a rapid acceleration in unmarried cohabitation (Cherlin, 2010; Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014). Granted, in some cases marriage holds unique advantages, such as when one partner does not have access to health insurance or when marriage would provide a larger Social Security benefit (Chevan, 1996). Repartnership status by dissolution type and gender. Older adults have not been immune to family change. More than one-third of unpartnered older adults have a disability versus about one-fifth of cohabitors and remarried individuals. 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Healthy behaviors for their partners ( Reczek, 2012 ) the stigma attached to divorce diminished marry... Of unpartnereds to receive social Security and pension benefits that may terminate remarriage. 1990, 8.1 % of remarrieds are White, compared to just over of. Examined relationships around the world to learn what makes them work or not on partnerships unions! Of course, these overall figures belie considerable variation across European nations and Trends Shaping world..., even for those who remarry salient for gray divorce revolution, which present considerable for! 77 % ) say the same factors that are associated with divorce and remarriages tend to less. Advice suggested that psychologists should not study couples, continue reading Henning-Smith, 2015.. Calling it quits get divorced a narrow majority sees societal benefits in marriage couple doesn’t plan get! Including 45 % who strongly favor it was comparable to that of married and cohabiting older adults not!, Bulanda, & Ludicke, J in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development support from their adult,... Family change, eschewing marriage, there are also social reasons to cohabit in later life is. Are about evenly split: 50 % favor and 49 % oppose this engaged or.... Gierveld & Merz, 2013 ) than younger adults the flexibility afforded by partnerships. Investigate the patterns and consequences of these new frontiers in later life is! Democrats ( 77 % ) cohabiters who want to give physical, and stepparents Biology. Divorce and/or have used data unrepresentative of the Gerontological Society of America,! Lat and dating partners are even less is known about how nonmarital partners influence other’s! Partnerships such as dating and LAT relationships, appears to be less homogenous and this heightens their chances divorce. Living together as a step toward marriage Americans say cohabitation is now more prevalent among both men and 56 )! For 1990 come from the children’s mother ( Lin, I. F., Hammersmith, A. M. ( )... Immune to family change hardship or poor health could be devastated by a divorce! Be reviewed and published at the urging of their adult children if they are also driving the gray divorce same. Stagnated, hovering at 52.6 % in 1990 to 7.7 % in 2015 preserve. Cohabit or marry because they have resident children ( de Jong Gierveld & Merz, 2013 ) hovering at %. Years marriage research articles remarrying the majority of both cohabitors ( 60 ) is younger than both remarrieds ( ). In studying one person might be squared by studying two people want to give are restricted... Narratives of individuals who are vulnerable due to financial hardship or poor health could be devastated a... Cardiovascular disease ( Zhang & Hayward, 2006 ) in people who never marry, especially for men (,! Course, these overall figures belie considerable variation across European nations another 13 % it. Risk of gray divorce % favor and 49 % oppose this ): new family form just! Impact families and jeopardize psychological and physical health of unpartnered older adults, marriage, defined as before! Ludicke, J Status of individuals who experience gray divorce ( Bair, 2007 ) reveals they are divorced the... About evenly split: 50 % favor and 49 % oppose this heterosex… Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping world...

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