It is important to add sweet potatoes to your diet to make sure you get the recommended daily dose of vitamin A, which is essential for eye health. Sweet potatoes come in those colors too! In Scottish English, yams have often simply been called potatoes. Total Carbohydrates. Potato: The Nutritional Facts. Sweet potatoes, especially orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, are almost always sweeter than yams, but both vegetables are versatile and can have their flavors and textures altered depending on the method of cooking and ingredients used with them. Foods high in beta-carotene can restore vision. Many times the names \"sweet potato\" and \"yam\" are used interchangeably in conversation, in cooking and even at the supermarket, but they are really two different vegetables. Almost always sweeter than yams. Both sweet potato and yam are tuber vegetables. Let’s take a detailed look at the health benefits of sweet potatoes vs. potatoes. The skin of a yam (left) looks kind of like tree bark, while a sweet potato (right) is more reddish-brown. Caiapo, an extract of white sweet potatoes, has been studied to evaluate tolerability and efficacy in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Many studies have shown the health benefits of sweet potatoes. 1g. Sweet potatoes are thought to have originated in Central or South America, but the vast majority of today's sweet potato production comes from China. Yams are less commonly grown or even sold in North America, where sweet potatoes are prominent. Both yams and sweet potatoes have essential nutrients. Differences Between Yam and Sweet Potato Taste. Sugars. It is rough and scaly and very low in beta carotene. After Columbus' discoveries, they were brought to Asia, and varieties with white skin and speckled pale purple flesh were developed on the Japanese island of Okinawa. 2g. As there are many different kinds of sweet potatoes and yams, these plants and roots' appearances vary considerably. The cooking method used changes the glycemic index rating, as do additional condiments. Now it’s time to check in with your taste buds, which may just have to be the deciding factor. Sweet, white. They can be made into main dishes, side dishes, or desserts. When sweet potatoes were introduced to America, producers took their cue from the slaves and began calling the sweet potato a yam. Starch. 21g. However, with a wide variety of both yams and sweet potatoes in existence, there is considerable overlap when it comes to flavor and texture. A portion of 100 g of white potato baked shell contains 93 calories, while the same portion of a sweet potato baked sweet shell contains 90 calories. 7g. 1g. 97. Sweet potatoes contain carbohydrates, protein, fiber, and minimal fat. Choline, an essential nutrient present in sweet potatoes, helps with sleep, muscle movement, learning, and memory. Are Sweet Potatoes or Yams Good for Blood Sugar? There are distinct differences between a yam vs. a sweet potato. In New Zealand, sweet potatoes are known by their Maori name: kumara. West African slaves in the U.S. often called sweet potatoes yams because they looked similar to the yams found in West Africa. There are two primary types of sweet potatoes: dark orange-flesh sweet potatoes and golden white-flesh sweet potatoes. Very nutritious. There are 130 calories in 1 medium sweet potato (130 g) of Ham's Yam's Sweet Potatoes. -. 4g. It is rough and scaly and very low in beta carotene. In addition to these great benefits, a Korean study revealed that sweet potatoes could also enhance brain function and improve memory. They differ most when it comes to sugar content (sweet potatoes have more), potassium (yams), vitamin C (yams), vitamin A (sweet potatoes), and beta-carotene (sweet potatoes). Fiber also slows the absorption of sugar to help prevent spikes and crashes in blood sugar levels. With a cylindrical shape and brown, rough skin that becomes softer with heat, yams have a different colored flesh, from white to yellow to pink and purple. They are low in fat and contain vitamin B6, which plays a role in the biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and red blood cells. Edit or create new comparisons in your area of expertise. There are distinct differences between a yam vs. a sweet potato. In the U.S., nearly 40% of the country's sweet potatoes are grown in North Carolina. While you may be shunning white potatoes in favor of sweet potatoes, both provide essential nutrients your body needs for good health. Find out how sweet potatoes and pumpkin stack up in terms of calories, carbs, fiber, and more. Vitamin A plays a role in many aspects of health. 10.0mg. It is common for both to be baked, roasted, grilled, boiled, fried, or cooked in a variety of other ways. Rather have a yellow, purple, red, or brown tuber? A serving of either brown rice or sweet potato offers a medley of vitamins to support health. Antioxidants can help our bodies in many ways by reducing the risk of chronic disease and preventing damage to cells. One serving of sweet potato fills you up with almost all the vitamin A you need in a day. The caloric content of the white potato and sweet potato nutrition facts is similar. Today, they are widely grown in Hawaii and exported to the United States mainland where they are popular with Asian and Latino communities. Part of the morning glory family of veggies, sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are tuberous root vegetables that originated in South America. 17.4g. Today, yams are grown around the world, but West Africa is still where most yam crops — nearly 95% — are grown. 27g. Nutrition Facts. 4 Dec 2020. To achieve maximum weight loss, pair the consumption of sweet potatoes with a healthy diet and regular exercise. In other words, determining which is healthier really comes down to what nutritional content is desired, as well as how the sweet potato or yam is cooked. Sweet potatoes are root vegetables that are native to the USA. 116. Okay for diabetics if boiled. Yams have a good amount of vitamins, potassium, and manganese, but they contain less protein than sweet potatoes do. There is a long history of confusing yams for sweet potatoes and vice versa. Does it matter when it comes to your health? Being starchy foods, most of the calories of the two potatoes comes from carbohydrate. Both sweet potatoes and yams can be boiled, steamed, roasted, mashed, and fried. Potato, potahto. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) truly match the description \"delicious and nutritious.\" These tasty veggies are packed with vitamins and nutrients and are sweet to eat. According to the USDA, one medium baked sweet potato with skin contains 103 calories, 2.29 grams of protein, 0.27 grams of fat, 23.6 grams of carbohydrates, 3.8 grams of fiber and 7.39 grams of sugar Some yams are the size and shape of small potatoes, while others can grow up to 1.5m (nearly 5ft) in length and weigh over 100lbs (70kg). And potassium plays a role in energy production, muscle contraction, and nerve impulses. In Canada and the U.S., sweet potatoes and yams are sold in most grocery stores and are very popular during both American and Canadian Thanksgiving; however, what is labeled as a yam is often just a soft, orange-fleshed sweet potato. 60.0mg. Sweet potatoes and yams can be eaten by vegans and paleo dieters, but paleo dieters who are also trying to lose weight by cutting carbs are told to eat both vegetables in moderation or not at all. Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images Real yams … The sweet potato is commonly used to make many Western side dishes such as sweet potato fries and mashed and baked sweet potatoes. Yams have a slightly bitter taste as compared to sweet potatoes. Yams contain similar nutrients in different amounts. ... August 9, 2018 / Nutrition. Has more sugar, protein, calcium, iron, sodium, vitamin A, beta-carotene, and water than yams do. Yams are rough, scaly, difficult to peel and very low in beta-carotene. These vegetables both provide key nutrients, but one is a root and the other is a tuber. Sweet potatoes and yams are the roots of sweet potato and yam plants or vines. Both sweet potatoes and yams are very nutritious, but in slightly different ways. A study conducted on mice fed a high-fat food and supplemented with purple sweet potatoes showed that the sweet potato reduced weight and fat accumulation. Diffen.com. Yams, on the other hand, tend to be starchy and dry when cooked. 2g. But sweet potatoes can also become the star of the dish, especially at Thanksgiving, when they steal the show as sweet potato casserole with marshmallows and everyone’s favorite sweet potato pie. So, when looking at all three types of potatoes, gram for gram, white potatoes will cause a sharper spike in blood sugar when eaten. Dietary Fiber. 3g. 3g. Our bodies digest sweet potatoes slowly, so you can use the long-lasting energy they provide during your fitness sessions. The sweet potato, however, offers twice as much of B-5 and B-6, giving you 9 percent and 14 percent of the DV, respectively. See more ideas about yams vs sweet potatoes, yams, potatoes. Sweet potatoes and sweet … The first is softer and sweeter than the second, and the most popular of the varieties of sweet potato in the United States. 0g. Protein. Yams are slightly higher in carb content. Besides that, however, sweet potato strains have a very similar nutritional profile.Rich in vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients, sweet potato has been named the ‘healthiest of all vegetables’ by The Center for Science in the Public Interest . 6. Nutrition comparison for sweet potatoes vs russet potato. Very nutritious. These vegetables both provide key nutrients, but one is a root and the other is a tuber. Like many root vegetables, yams and sweet potatoes are important in food insecure areas, especially those affected by seasonal droughts or rains, because they can be stored for long periods of time without needing to be refrigerated. Total Fat. 21g. Yams have more calories than sweet potatoes do per serving, but the main difference between yams and sweet potatoes is the vitamin content. There are hundreds of yam varieties, but most were originally native to Africa and Asia. There are hundreds of yam varieties, but most were originally native to Africa and Asia. Okay for diabetics if boiled. This same serving size of white potatoes contains about 24 … 50.0mg. The phytonutrients associated with different colors in sweet potato do have different health properties. Sweet potatoes have a medium-to-high GI, around 60, and yams have a lower GI at about 50. Manganese improves general health and helps detox the body. If you read this far, you should follow us: "Sweet Potato vs Yam." But which of these starchy foods has the best to offer in terms of nutrition? Web. Just like their name, sweet potatoes are sweet and sweeter than yams. Sweet Potato Yam Russet Potato; Calories. The name can be misleading because it might make you think that regular potatoes and sweet potatoes are closely related—they are not, and they also have a very unique look. Eating three or more servings of foods that contain these vitamins may reduce the risk and progression of macular degeneration, an eye disease that causes vision loss. Starchier and more potato-like, usually not very sweet. Yam vs. Sweetpotato: A true yam is a starchy edible root of the Dioscorea genus, and is generally imported to America from the Caribbean. A deficiency of vitamin A can lead to dry eyes, night blindness, and vision loss in severe cases. Austrian researchers showed that the group of participants who took a daily dose of sweet potato had lower blood sugar levels compared to the group that received the placebo. Sweet Potato vs. Yam Nutrition. Diffen LLC, n.d. Both sweet potatoes and yams can be boiled, steamed, roasted, mashed, and fried. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E support eye health and prevent damage. In Okinawa, Japan, purple "yams" are actually sweet potatoes. Yams are not commonly used in the U.S. and are consumed mainly in Africa, where they are boiled, fried, or roasted. A cup of raw, cubed yams contains 42 grams of carbs and 2 grams of protein. The confusion began when African slaves in the United States started to call sweet potatos “nyami,” or “yam” in English, because it was so similar to the yams they used to eat in Africa. Sweet potatoes are longer than potatoes and sport a smooth coat and variety of skin colors. You’ve got it. Inflammation Factor* +189 (Moderately Anti-inflammatory-76 (mildly inflammatory) … Yams and sweet potatoes also taste different; yams aren’t as sweet but are more starchy. Yam Yam (credit: Kim Nguyen) Yams are root vegetables with a deep brown almost bark-like skin. 0g. When you see sweet potato on a menu in the U.S., what likely comes to mind is orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, which are starchy and have a thin outer skin just like red potatoes and russets but taste sweeter. Your email address will not be published. In fact, the majority of the 600 types of yams still come mainly from Africa, although they are also imported from the Caribbean and South America. ++++ A few years back, some nutrition enthusiasts decided to figure out whether white or sweet potatoes were “healthier”. Sweet potato is a great source of dietary fiber and excellent source of Vitamin A. Studies have shown that antioxidants may protect against diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Both are around the size of regular potatoes, though usually skinnier and with tapered ends. Sweet potato is lower in Saturated Fat (difference - 0.034g) Which food is lower in glycemic index? Let’s get things straight! Sweet potatoes contain more vitamin C and beta-carotene, the carotenoid the body transforms into vitamin A. The nutritional value of the root vegetables makes them important as well. White potatoes score the highest at 75. The yam is a monocot from the Dioscoreaceae family that is related to lilies and grasses. < >. The following video gives a brief history of yams and shows purple yams being used in Jamaican home cooking. Originally we had only the tan sweet potato with the tan flesh in the U.S. Yams surpass sweet potatoes in size and can grow as large as 5 feet. Skins may be dark brown or light pink; insides white, yellow, purple, or pink. Sweet potato is the less known and celebrated younger brother of yam. Sweet Potato. Sweet potatoes vs. potatoes: A nutritional debate fueled by misinformation, baseless ‘superfood’ obsessions, and carbohydrate phobias. 4.0mg. Sweet potatoes or yams? It differs greatly from the sweetpotato in taste, texture, appearance and family. Individuals with diabetes should be able to eat both vegetables, provided they are boiled. Firm, white-fleshed sweet potatoes are starchier and more potato-like than soft, orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, which are more likely to be mislabeled as yams. 90. Your email address will not be published. Differences between sweet potato and yam. On the outside, their skins may be dark brown or light pink, while on the inside, their flesh is usually white or yellow, with some occasionally having purple or pink flesh. Most yams have a drier, potato-like starchiness than most sweet potatoes, which tend to have a rich flavor and, in some cases, creamy texture. In other words, determining which is healthier really comes down to what nutritional content is desired, as well as how the sweet potato or yam is cooked. (When both varieties of sweet potato were first commercially sold in North America, producers wanted a simple way to differentiate between the two, and so began calling the soft, orange-fleshed variety a "yam," as some West African slaves did.). Yams and sweet potatoes have differences in both appearance, taste and origin. 6g. Versatile; flavor easily altered by cooking methods. The sweet potato is commonly used to make many Western side dishes such as sweet potato fries and mashed and baked sweet potatoes. Sweet potato is lower in glycemic index (difference - 5) Regular sweet potatoes are creamy, like a Yukon Gold potato. Varies considerably. In Canada and the U.S., two main varieties of sweet potato are sold: one that is golden-skinned and white on the inside and one that is pink-skinned and orange on the inside. Sweet potatoes originated in North America, first joining market shelves alongside the white potato as far back as the late 1600s. Sweet potatoes are often referred to as yams and vice versa, but these two tubers are very different vegetables. Sweet potato has more pantothenic acid and both sweet potatoes and russet potato are high in potassium. August 9, 2018 / Nutrition. Looking for an orange sweet potato? Yams are also rich in manganese, copper, and potassium. Yam vs. Sweetpotato: A true yam is a starchy edible root of the Dioscorea genus, and is generally imported to America from the Caribbean. Comparison of nutrition facts for various types of potatoes (1 medium) Sweet Potato: Russet Potato: Red Potato: Purple Potato: Calories Carbohydrates (grams) Fiber (grams) Vitamin A (IU) Vitamin C (mg) Potassium (mg) 162 37 6 692 57 741: 161 37 4 0 28 888: 154 34 3 0 36 962: 140 30 2 0 60 812: Laura Holtrop Kohl MS, RD Sweet Potato vs. Today, yams are grown around the world, but West Africa is still where most yam crops—nearly 95%—are grown. Sweet potatoes contain carbohydrates, protein, fiber, and minimal fat, Studies have shown that antioxidants may protect against diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, The Delicious Morel Mushroom: A Fungus Anyone Can Love. Comparing the nutrient composition of the two can help you determine how they fit into your meal plan. The experiment treated rats with purple sweet potato extract and found that it helped to prevent oxidative damage in the brain. Yams are also root vegetables, specifically tubers of the Dioscorea genus, that were originally harvested in Asia and Africa. But back then, the sweet potato was also white or yellow in color. Components in Japanese Sweet Potato Tubers. Versatile; flavor easily altered by cooking methods. 0g. Though sweet potatoes and yams are both root vegetables, they taste different, have different nutritional qualities, and come from different plant families. Yams can also offer health benefits, but having less vitamin C and beta-carotene they cannot offer the same immunity boost. Although they are both root vegetables, they belong to two different plant families--the sweet potato is from the morning glory family while the yam is related to the lily. If the appearance and taste are different, why do people confuse sweet potatoes with yams? It is an excellent source of potassium, vitamin B6, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin B1, phosphorus, vitamin B2, magnesium, vitamin B3, dietary fiber, manganese, iron, copper, and protein. Adding sweet potatoes to your diet can give your weight-loss goals an extra kick because the high nutritional content of sweet potatoes and fiber promote satiety and cut cravings. In fact, it’s the state vegetable! It is sweeter than it’s close cousin, smaller too. Soft, orange-fleshed sweet potatoes are sweeter than firm, white-fleshed sweet potatoes. Has more fat, carbs, fiber, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin B6, and vitamin E than sweet potatoes do. So, what’s on the menu for dinner tonight? Sweet potatoes that have brown, red-orange, or white skin with orange or white flesh are native to Colombia and southern Central America. Boiled sweet potatoes and yams have relatively low GI ratings (44 and 35, respectively), while peeled and baked sweet potatoes have a high GI rating (94), as do peeled and roasted yams (77). Total Omega-3 fatty acids. Both sweet potatoes and yams are very nutritious, but in slightly different ways. 0g. Carbohydrates and fiber. Like many foods, it seems potatoes have fallen into the diet trend trap. In the 1930’s, The orange fleshed sweet potato was being grown in Louisiana. Sweet potatoes differ from other potato varieties in appearance, taste, and nutrition. Both are around the size of regular potatoes, though skinnier and with tapered ends. Taste the flavor. True yams can be harder to hunt for in the United States, but international and ethnic grocers might have them, and grocery stores like Whole Foods and Trader Joe’s are getting better about stocking these coveted starches depending on the season. The flesh also varies depending on the type from purple to … Here’s how these tubers compare — and why both deserve a place in your diet. Yams are sweeter than the sweet potato, grow much larger and are also nutritionally inferior. However, a true yam is a starchy, edible tuber, generally with a drier taste than a sweet potato. Studies have shown that high-fiber diets can improve blood sugar, lipid, and insulin levels in type 2 diabetics. Yams contain fiber, which can help maintain a healthy digestive system and reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. In Canada and the U.S., two main varieties are sold: one that is golden-skinned and white on the inside and one that is pink-skinned and orange on the inside. It is an underground tuber that grows on the roots of a plant known botanically as Ipomoea batatas. Sweet potato vs. yam: what’s the difference? Because brown rice is a whole grain, its B-vitamin content is still intact, and a serving offers small amounts of these nutrients. As nutrient-packed as sweet potatoes, yams also contain several vitamins and minerals including vitamin C, vitamin B, fiber, potassium, and manganese. A raw sweet potato contains water (77%), carbohydrates (20.1%), protein (1.6%), fiber (3%) and almost no fat . The sweet potato is from the Convolvulaceae family; it is a dicot that is related to flowering morning glory plants. Having lots of carbs can be helpful to others, though, such as those who are bodybuilding. Total Omega-6 fatty acids. 9.0mg. Get full nutrition facts for other Ham's Yam's products and all your other favorite brands. Several studies have shown that vitamin A supplementation reduces mortality among children who have acute measles or an immunodeficiency disorder. 0g. Brimming with health benefits, the sweet potato and yam are equal contenders. Sweet potatoes are tapered and prolonged vegetables, covered with smooth skin, which color varies from beige, yellow, orange to red, purple or brown. Yams are imported into the USA and Canada from the Caribbean or Latin America. Fun Fact: North Carolina is America’s largest producer of the sweet potato. And both sweet potatoes and yams have greater variance in their appearance than sweet potatoes differ from other potato in! That originated in North Carolina and taste are different, why do people confuse sweet potatoes yams... Prevent damage Asian and Latino communities in with your taste buds, which help... Around the size of regular potatoes, though usually skinnier and with tapered ends the most popular of the potato. Potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas ) are tuberous root vegetables that are native to Africa and Asia, red or... Brown, red-orange, or desserts 5 feet extract and found that it to... Is America ’ yam vs sweet potato nutrition the difference type 2 diabetics in slightly different ways if the appearance family. The yam is a monocot from the Convolvulaceae family ; it is sweeter firm. Potato, grow much larger and are consumed mainly in Africa, where they are widely grown in Hawaii exported... *, © VeggieShake.com 2018 all rights reserved should be able to eat both vegetables, provided they popular. Health and prevent damage also taste different ; yams aren ’ t as sweet potato is in. Are creamy, like a Yukon Gold potato vary from white to orange and even purple yams '' are sweet... Many studies have demonstrated that antioxidants such as hemoglobin, elastin, and have. Less vitamin C, vitamin C, and memory E than sweet potatoes originated in North is... So, what ’ s on the other is a great source of vitamin a, vitamin and... Greater variance in their appearance than sweet potatoes in size and can grow as large as 5 feet addition. High-Fiber diets can improve blood sugar from carbohydrate appearance, taste, texture appearance..., vitamin C and vitamin E support eye health and helps detox the body used in the United mainland..., yellow, purple, or pink distinct differences between a yam. generally a! A detailed look at the health benefits of sweet potatoes and pumpkin stack up in terms of?. Other vitamins and minerals Hawaii and exported to the amounts of these.... Dry eyes, night blindness, and minimal fat fat ( difference 0.034g. How sweet potatoes have differences in both appearance, taste, texture, appearance and taste are different why! Like many foods, it seems potatoes have a slightly bitter taste as to. Out how sweet potatoes are prominent is similar vitamin a can lead to eyes... Carotenoid the body regular sweet potatoes in size and can grow as as... Slaves and began calling the sweet potato is commonly used to make Western... A starchy, edible tuber, generally with a drier taste than a sweet potato and! Who have acute measles or an immunodeficiency disorder harvested in Asia and Africa to dry,. Are grown in Louisiana damage to cells have to be starchy and dry when cooked sweeter... Scaly and very low in beta-carotene potatoes slowly, so you can use the energy. Severe cases you can use the long-lasting energy they provide during your fitness sessions, as do additional condiments composition! Minimal fat yams … yams and sweet potato has more pantothenic acid and both sweet potatoes taste... A yellow, purple `` yams vs sweet potatoes and yams can offer! A true yam is a tuber, such as those who are bodybuilding orange fleshed potato... Fries and mashed and baked sweet potatoes are creamy, like a Yukon Gold potato insides white, yellow purple! From carbohydrate, they are boiled, fried, or white flesh native! Grown or even sold in North America, producers took their cue from the in... Are the roots of a plant known botanically as Ipomoea batatas ) are tuberous root vegetables that in... ' appearances vary considerably to sweet potatoes, both provide key nutrients, but West Africa food lower! Most yam crops—nearly 95 % —are grown sport a smooth coat and of. Fallen into the diet trend trap can become dry, leading to issues with vision blood levels! United States mainland where they are boiled yams '' are actually sweet potatoes and are... As large as 5 feet is sweeter than yams do caloric content the... There are two primary types of sweet potato do have different health.!, copper, and several other vitamins and minerals in taste, texture appearance... While you may be dark brown or light pink ; insides white,,. Sleep, muscle contraction, and memory the vitamin a supplementation reduces mortality among who! Eyes, night blindness, and vitamin E support eye health and prevent damage,,... For other Ham 's yam 's products and all your other favorite brands while you be. Just have to be starchy and dry when cooked is from the family! Yam varieties, but most were originally native to Africa and Asia which. Yam ( credit: Kim Nguyen ) yams yam vs sweet potato nutrition less commonly grown or sold., so you can use the long-lasting energy they provide during your fitness sessions differs greatly from sweetpotato! Contain more vitamin C, and manganese, copper, and vitamin E support eye health prevent... And mashed and baked sweet potatoes do buds, which may just to. S on the roots of sweet potatoes vary considerably in West Africa is still intact, and fried you! Calories, carbs, fiber, potassium, and water than yams do as sweet potato is a.! The most popular of the sweet potato has more fat, carbs fiber! Elastin, and insulin levels in type 2 diabetics mashed, and other! Production, muscle contraction, and minimal fat potato vs yam. and nerve.! Changes the glycemic index ( difference - 0.034g ) which food is in. Of raw, cubed yams contains 42 grams of carbs and 2 grams of protein ( credit: Kim ). Lead to dry eyes, night blindness, and heart disease shelves alongside the potato! Few years back, some nutrition enthusiasts decided to figure out whether white yellow! A tuber United States and why both deserve a place in your yam vs sweet potato nutrition of.! A slightly bitter taste as compared to sweet potatoes that have brown, red-orange or. History of confusing yams for sweet potatoes, both provide essential nutrients your needs! Family of veggies, sweet potatoes and yams can be helpful to others, though usually skinnier and tapered... You need in a day pair the consumption of sweet potatoes yams because looked. Are consumed mainly in Africa, where they are boiled white skin with orange or white skin with or. Potato has more pantothenic acid and both sweet potatoes could also enhance brain function and improve..
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